Analizando el impacto sobre la pobreza de la Iniciativa HIPC en Bolivia

  • Fanny Heylen FUNDP
Palabras clave: Bolivia, condonación de la deuda, Iniciativa de HIPC, pobreza, descentralización

Resumen

El propósito de este artículo es analizar el impacto de los programas de la condonación de la deuda en la reducción de la pobreza en Bolivia, centrándose en la iniciativa HIPC. Mientras que esta iniciativa intenta reducir pobreza de una manera descentralizada, el análisis se concentra en el acoplamiento entre la reducción de la pobreza y los recursos preliminares del HIPC a nivel municipal. Para hacer eso se estudia el impacto específico de la condonación de la deuda en la evolución de dos indicadores de la pobreza (la enseñanza y las tasas alcanzadas) durante el período 2001-2005. Concluyo que los recursos otorgados bajo la iniciativa HIPC no afectaron a la evolución de estos indicadores de la pobreza durante el período de estudio.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Citas

Abendroth, H., M. Pacheco, C. Villegas, A. Aguirre y B. Delgadillo. 2001. La deuda externa de Bolivia: ¿125 años de renegociaciones y cuántos más? Desde la operación secreta del gobierno y los Meiggs hasta la iniciativa HIPC. La Paz, Bolivia: CEDLA.

Af DF. 2006. 33 African Countries to Benefit from US$8.5 Debt Relief, FAf, Tunis (TU). -[http://www.afdb.org]

Andersen, L. y J.L. Evia. 2003. The Effectiveness of Foreign Aid in Bolivia. La Paz, Bolivia: IISEC.

Andersen, L. y O. Nina. 2000. The HIPC Initiative in Bolivia. La Paz, Bolivia: IISEC.

Arnone, M., L. Bandiera y A.F. Presbitero. 2005. “External Debt Sustainability: Theory and Empirical Evidence”, Université Catholique de Piacenza, Working Paper N°33.

Arnone, M., L. Bandiera y A.F. Presbitero. 2008. “Debt Sustainability Framework in HIPCs: A Critical Assessment and Suggested Improvements”, Universita Politecnica delle Marche.

Arnone, M. y A.F. Presbitero. 2007. “External Debt Sustainability and Domestic Debt in Heavily Indebted Poor Countries”, Revista Internationale di Science Sociali, N°2/2007.

Barro, R.J. y X. Sala-i-Martin (1992), «Public Finance in Models of Economic Growth », CEPR Discussion Papers, N°630.

Barro, R.J. y X. Sala-i-Martin. 1999. Economic growth, MIT Press, Massachusetts, USA .

Baum, C.F., M.E. Schaffer y S. Stillman. 2003. “Instrumental variables and GMM: Estimation and testing”, Stata Journal 3(1), 1-31.

Baum, C.F., M.E. Schaffer y S. Stillman. 2007. “Enhanced routines for instrumental variables/GMM estimation and testing”, Stata Journal 7(4), 465-506.

BCB. 1998 a 2008. “Estado de la deuda externa pública”, BCB Departamento de la deuda externa, La Paz, Bolivia.

BCB. 2007. “Memoria institucional”, La Paz, Bolivia.

BCB. 2008. “Iniciativa de alivio de deuda multilateral”, Boletín informativo, La Paz, Bolivia.

Berensmann, K. 2004. “How to ensure debt sustainability beyond the HIPC initiative?”, Discussion Paper, disponible sur le site <http://www.un.org/esa/ffd/0304-Hearings-CS-KB-debt.pdf>

Berlage, L., D. Cassimon, J. Dreze y P. Reding. 2003. “Prospective Aid and Indebtedness Relief: A Proposal”, World Development, Vol. 31, N° 10, 1635–1654.

BID. 2007. Rapport annuel du Fonds des Opérations Spéciales, IaDB, Washington DC (USA). -[http://www.iadb.org]

Birdsall, N., S. Claessens y I. Diwan. 2001. “Will HIPC Matter? The Debt Game and Donor Behaviour in Africa”, CERP Discussion Paper, N°3.

Birdsall, N. and B. Deese 2004. “Beyond HIPC: Secure Sustainable Debt Relief for Poor Countries”, Centre for Global Development, Working Paper N° 46.

Cassimon, D. and B. Van Campenhout. 2007. “Aid effectiveness, Debt relief and Public Finance Response, Evidence from a Panel of HIPCs”, UNU WIDER Research Paper, N° 2007/59.

CEPAS-CARITAS. 2005. La deuda interna de Bolivia, ¿un agujero negro?. CEPAS-CARITAS, La Paz, Bolivia.

Chauvin, N. D. and A. KRAAY. 2005. “What has 100 Billion Dollars Worth of Debt Relief Done for Low-Income Countries?”. International Finance, EconWPA N°0510001.

Clements, B., R. Bhattacharya and T.Q. Nguyen. 2005. “Can Debt Relief Boost Growth in Poor Countries?”. IMF Economic Issues N°34, Washington DC (USA).

Cohen, D., M. Phamtan, C. Rampulla and C. Vellutini. 2004. Beyond the HIPC Initiative. Rapport pour la Commission Européenne, disponible sur le site http://europa.eu.int/comm./development/body/theme/docs

Easterly W. 2001. “Debt Relief ”. Foreign Policy, N°127, 20-26.

EURODAD. 2001. “Putting poverty reduction first, why a poverty approach to debt sustainability must be adopted?”. European Network on Debt and Development, Bruxelles (BE).

EURODAD. 2003. “HIPC additionality: some concerning projections”. European Network on Debt and Development, Bruxelles (BE).

EURODAD. 2006. “Arrears Clearance: Loan Laundering and Creditor Co-Responsibility”. European Network on Debt and Development, Bruxelles (BE).

EURODAD. 2007. “La BID s’engage enfin sur l’IADM –Que cache sa décision?”. European Network on Debt and Development, Bruxelles (BE).

Fikru Mahelet, G., Bizuayehu Getachew. 2008. “Can debt relief lead to development in Africa”. MPRA, Paper N° 9955.

Geda, A. 2003. “The Historical Origin of African Debt Crisis”. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review, Vol. 19, N°1, 59-89.

Gunter, B. G. 2001. “Does the HIPC Initiative Achieve its Goal of Debt Sustainability?”. UNU WIDER Discussion Paper, N°2001/100.

Gunter, B. G., J. RAHMAN and Q. Wodon. 2008. “Robbing Peter to Pay Paul? Understanding Who Pays for Debt Relief”. World Development Vol. 36 N°1, 1-16.

Hepp, R. 2005. “Health Expenditures Under the HIPC Debt Initiative”. International Finance, EconWPA N°0510005.

Huber, E., T. Mustillo and J.D. STEPHENS. 2004. “Determinants of Social Spending in Latin America”. Paper delivered at the Meetings of the Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics, Washington D.C. (USA).

Humerez, J. and M. Mariscal. 2005. “Sostenibilidad y gestión de la deuda pública externa en Bolivia: 1970 a 2010”. UDAPE Análisis económico, Vol. 20, 60-95.

Humerez J. and D. Hernaiz. 2006. “Efectos de la deuda externa y otras políticas macro sobre el producto: una aproximación de vectores autorregresivos”. UDAPE Análisis económico, Vol. 21, 40-61.

IDA. 2006/03a. Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative - Country Eligibility Assessment. World Bank, Washington DC (USA).

IDA. 2006/03b. IDA’s implementation of the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative. World Bank, Washington DC (USA).

IDA. 2006/06a. Bolivia to Receive Debt Relief Totaling US$1.804 Billion. World Bank, Washington DC (USA).

IDA. 2006/06b. IDA Countries and non-concessional debt: dealing with the «free rider» problem in IDA 14 grant recipient and post-MDRI Countries. World Bank Resource Mobilization Department, Washington DC (USA).

IDA. 2007/07. Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI): Update on debt relief by AID and donor financing to date. World Bank, Washington DC (USA).

IDA/IMF. 1997/08. BOLIVIA: Final Document on the Initiative for the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries. IMF, Washington DC (USA).

IDA/IMF. 1998/09. BOLIVIA: Initiative for the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Completion Point Document. IMF, Washington DC (USA).

IDA/IMF. 2000/01. BOLIVIA: Decision Point Document for the Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative. IMF, Washington DC (USA).

IDA/IMF. 2001/05. BOLIVIA: Completion Point Document for the Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries. IMF, Washington DC (USA).

IDA/IMF. 2004/07. Enhanced HIPC Initiative: Possible options regarding the sunset clause. IMF, Washington DC (USA).

IDA/IMF. 2007/08. Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative and Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) - Status of Implementation. IMF, Washington DC (USA).

IDA/IMF. 2008/09. Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative and Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) - Status of implementation. IMF, Washington DC (USA).

IMF. 1997/07. “Debt Relief for Low Income Countries and the HIPC Initiative”. IMF Working paper, WP/97/24.

IMF. 2004/10. “Concessionnal Debt”. IMF Issue Paper BOPTEG, N°29.

IMF. 2005. Balance of Payments Manual, Revision of the Fifth Edition. IMF, Washington DC (USA).

IMF. 2005/09. Factsheet: Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers. IMF, Washington DC (USA). - [http://www.imf.org]

IMF. 2005/12. Bolivia: Staff assessment of qualification for the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative. IMF, Washington DC (USA).

IMF. 2007/12. Factsheet: Concessionality and the Design of Debt Limits in IMF-Supported Programs in Low-Income Countries. IMF, Washington DC (USA). - [http://www.imf.org]

IMF. 2009/01. “Bolivia: 2008 Article IV Consultation—Staff Report; Staff Supplement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for Bolivia”. IMF Country Report, N° 09/27. -[http://www.imf.org ]

IMF. 2009/03a. Factsheet: Debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries initiative (PPTE). IMF, Washington DC (USA). - [http://www.imf.org]

IMF. 2009/03b. Factsheet: The Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI). IMF, Washington DC (USA). - [http://www.imf.org]

Jubilee USA Network. 2008. Vulture Funds and Poor Country Debt: Recent Developments and Policy Responses, Jubilee USA Network. Washington DC (USA).

Jubileo. 2008. 2Bolivia recurre a nuevo endeudamiento externo para invertir en hidrocarburos y caminos”. Revista Jubileo, N°12, 12-13.

Jubileo. 2008. Presupuesto General de la Nación. Jubileo, La Paz, Bolivia.

Jubileo. 2009. Impacto de la Initiativa HIPC en Bolivia. Jubileo, La Paz, Bolivia.

Koeda, J. 2006, “A Debt Overhang Model for Low-Income Countries: Implications for Debt Relief ”. IMF Working Paper, WP/06/224.

Kraay, A. and V. Nehru. 2004. “ W hen is External Debt Sustainable?”. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, N°3200.

Krueger, A. O. 2002. “A New Approach to Sovereign Debt Restructuring”. IMF, Washington DC (USA).

Krugman, P. 1988, “Financing versus Forgiving a Debt Overhang”. Journal of Development Economics, N° 29, 253-268.

Loser, C.M. 2004. “External Debt Sustainability: Guidelines for Low and Middle Income Countries”. UNCTAD G-24 Discussion Paper, N°26.

Mandel, S. 2006. “Debt relief as if people mattered, A rights-based approach to debt sustainability”. The New Economics Foundation (NEF), London (UK).

Morales, J. A. 2008. “La economía política del populismo boliviano del siglo 21”. IISEC, La Paz (Bolivia).

Oddone, F. 2007. "Debt sustainability or defensive deterrence? The rise of new lenders and the response of the old”. EURODAD, Bruxelles (BE).

OED. 2003. “The HIPC Initiative: Progress and Prospects”. World Bank Operations Evaluation Department, N°230.

Powell, R . 2000. “Debt relief for poor countries”. IMF Finance and Development, Vol. 37 N°4.

Powell, R . 2003. “Debt Relief, Additionality, and Aid Allocation in Low-Income Countries”. IMF Working Paper, WP/03/175.

Republic of Bolivia. 1994. Ley de Participación Popular. N°1551, La Paz, Bolivia.

Republic of Bolivia. 2001/03. Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, Estrategica Boliviana de Reduccion de la Pobreza, Republica de Bolivia. La Paz, Bolivia.

Republic of Bolivia. 2001/07. Ley del Diálogo Nacional 2000, N°2235. La Paz, Bolivia.

Republic of Bolivia. 2005. Ley de Hidrocarburos, N°3058. La Paz, Bolivia.

Sab, R . and S.C. Smith. 2001. “Human capital convergence: International evidence”. IMF Working Paper, WP/01/32.

Stock, J.H. and M. Yogo. 2005. “Testing for weak instruments in linear IV regression”. In: D.W.K . Andrews and J.H. Stock (eds.): Identification and Inference for Econometric Models: Essays in Honor of Thomas Rothenberg. Cambridge University Press, 80-108.

Sun, Y. 2004. “External Debt Sustainability in HIPC Completion Point Countries”. IMF Working Paper, WP/04/160.

Thomas, A. 2006. “Do Debt-Service Savings and Grants Boost Social Expenditures?”. IMF Working Paper, WP/06/180.

UDAPE. 2006. Ficha técnica alivio de deuda. UDAPE, La Paz, Bolivia.

UDAPE. 2008. Objectivos de Desarrollo del Milenio en Bolivia, Quinto informe de progreso 2008. UDAPE-CIMDM. La Paz, Bolivia.

Wooldridge, J.M. 2002, Introductory Econometrics, A Modern Approach. Third Edition. Thomson South-Western, Mason (USA).

World Bank. 1998. “Assessing Aid – What Works, What Doesn’t Work, and Why”. World Bank Policy Research Report, Oxford University Press, New York (USA).

World Bank. 2009. “HIPC at a glance”. World Bank, Washington DC (USA). - [www.worldbank.org/economicpolicyanddebt]

World Bank. 2009. “Steps of the HIPC initiative”. World Bank, Washington DC (USA). - [http://www.worldbank.org

Younger, S.D. 2001, “Cross-Country Determinants of Declines in Infant Mortality: A Growth Regression Approach”. Cornell Food and Nutrition Policy Program Working Paper, N°130.

Web sites

Bolivian Central Bank: [http://www.bcb.gov.bo]

World Bank: [http://www.worldbank.org]

IMF: [http://www.imf.org]

Jubileo Fundation: [http://www.jubileobolivia.org.bo]

Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas: [http://www.ine.gov.bo]

Ministry of Education and Culture: [http://www2.minedu.gov.bo/estads/dossie/parte1/dossier.html]

Ministry of Health and Sport: [http://www.sns.gov.bo/snis/default.aspx]

Ministry of Finance: [http://www.hacienda.gov.bo]

United Nations Development Program: [http:///www.undp.org]

Unidad de Análisis de Políticas Sociales y Económicas: [http://www.udape.gov.bo]

Unidad de Programación Fiscal: [http://www.tesoronacional.gov.bo/upf/m2311.htm]

Publicado
2010-11-01
Cómo citar
HeylenF. (2010). Analizando el impacto sobre la pobreza de la Iniciativa HIPC en Bolivia. Revista Latinoamericana De Desarrollo Económico, (14), 71-106. https://doi.org/10.35319/lajed.201014357